What did you do before coming to CRS?


Angel Alderete


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

What were you doing before that?

Answer:
I worked with the California Youth Authority.

Question:
What kinds of things did you do there?

Answer:
I was the program administrator with one of the institutions. Immediately prior to that I was a supervising parole agent, and before that I was a parole agent. I worked in the institutions, as well as out in the streets.

Question:
What drew you to CRS?

Answer:
One thing, and I'll be honest with you, was boredom with my job, the one that I had. At the same time, I was put in a position where I had nothing else to do but to resign, because I was demoted for becoming involved in some civil rights activity within the agency. For example, at one point we took over the Youth Authority offices in Sacramento. We felt there were two problems with the system. One, the lack of minorities in the system itself, and two, we felt there was prejudicial mistreatment of inmates because of who they were. So we protested those things and wrote articles, and then used the offices of the State Department of Rehabilitation and Unemployment to do our work. The person there who was the manager allowed us to do this as long as we did it at night, and we didn't go through the main door....so we went through windows to be able to do that. I was also involved with a prisoners' group; I acted as their advisor. I was used, I know that, but as long as it wasn't illegal, it was fine with me. But, I was suspected of not being loyal to the agency and that also angered other law enforcement agencies, so they had their eye on me. We also held conferences inviting correctional people as well as other inmates -- ex-inmates, rather -- to talk about mutual concerns. The conferences were okay, but they never really turned out the way we envisioned them. Somehow, the inmates thought that once we started advising them, that gave them power. There's no one who thinks he's God more than an ex-inmate who thinks he's "seen the light". You have to sort of reign them in, but not to the point where they just said, "To hell with it." Anyway, that's one of the things we were doing.




Angel Alderete


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

Prior to that, I'd say about seven or eight months prior, I had been talking with one of the people from CRS, a tremendous worker in the L.A. office. He was asking me, "Why don't you come over here?" after I'd been demoted. I said, "Heck with it, I'll just consider going with you." So I submitted all my paperwork to come to CRS. During this time, I was doing my thing with that group for correctional reform.



Leo Cardenas


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

What were you doing prior to joining CRS?

Answer:
I was a newspaper editor for the San Antonio Express.




Bob Ensley


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

What were you doing prior to joining CRS?

Answer:
A number of things. I was working as an insurance representative, and because of my knowledge of certain geographical areas of Georgia, CRS thought perhaps that would be to the agency's advantage. I had contacts with schools then, because I was selling insurance to teachers on a payroll deduction plan and therefore I had contacts with a lot of local education systems. Prior to that, I lived in New York and had a number of different jobs there.




Bob Ensley


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

I was at a community meeting and my late partner, Fred Miller, wanted to meet with a group of people in the Macon area. He showed a film showing some of the aftermath of the riots in North New Jersey. Somehow or another, he selected me to meet with him after this viewing of the film and we started talking, and he indicated that they would be hiring some temporary employees. He asked me if I would consider it for about 90 days. I told him I might, and sure enough the 90 days, as you know, ended up being 18 years-plus.



Bob Ensley


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

What skills did you bring with you from the Army that enhanced this particular job?

Answer:
Consensus-gathering -- getting a consensus as to what needs to be done. The best approaches, they call it now best practices tactical agreements, strategizing and these kinds of things. Don't ever be in a hurry and rush into something unless you thoroughly assessed it, or feel quite comfortable with the best approach.




Bob Hughes


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

What were you doing prior to joining CRS?

Answer:
Each of these is going to raise more questions. You realize what you're letting yourself in for? I was a consultant in Southern Africa, through the Church Center for the United Nations at New York City.

Question:
And what did that job entail? Give us a background.

Answer:
I would be presenting current developments and interpreting the dynamics that were involved. I would explain why these actions were being taken by various parties in southern Africa and, in particular, churches in southern Africa. They had taken particular reference to what was then southern Rhodesia.

Question:
What was your background?

Answer:
In college? Undergraduate work which was political science.




Ernest Jones


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

Question:
What were you doing prior to CRS in 1972?

Answer:
I had just graduated from college. I was a police officer for a couple years and I was going to school part time and I decided it was taking too long so I went to school full time. Coming to work for CRS actually took longer because directly before coming to work with CRS I took a 6- month sabbatical where I just toured the country. So prior to CRS I was in college, and I had been a police officer.

Question:
Were you involved in any other Civil Rights activities?

Answer:
Nope, none.

Question:
What attracted you CRS?

Answer:
The way that I came to know about CRS, was the University of Maryland where I did my Undergraduate program. They were having trouble figuring out where they were going to place students. One of the places that I ran across was CRS and when they had talked to me about trying to work, I was originally going to become an Administration of Justice Specialist which sounded very interesting and so that was it.




Julian Klugman


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

Answer:
I grew up on the near northwest side of Chicago, and I got into the University of Chicago, went to graduate school, under the old Oxford plan. The University of Chicago tried to transplant Oxford University to the United States. They finally dropped it in 1955. The idea was that you can go to college at 16 if you pass certain tests. I graduated from high school at 16, went to the University of Illinois for two years at the old Navy Pier before they had a campus. I took courses in graduate school in human development. When I went into the army, it was the end of the Korean war. After the army I got into independent politics. I went to work for a group called the South Shore Commission (S.S.) for 8 years. South Shore was integrating, because blacks were moving in from Woodlawn. I moved to South Shore, and I became director at S.S. for 8 years. I knew Saul Alinsky, the community organizer. Then Ben had gone from the Daily News to become the first black in Chicago television. Then he became director of CRS. So I went from community organizing to CRS. I don't think I would've worked for the Justice Department otherwise.




Efrain Martinez


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

What were you doing before that?

Answer:
I was working part time at the post office, but working full time as a volunteer community activist in the Chicago 18th street area. I had moved to Chicago when I graduated from high school. I went to school in Chicago. The University of Illinois, Chicago City College, and Roosevelt University. Most of my time really was spent in community activities, like the great boycott with Cesar Chavez's people. Just a lot of activism. We felt at the time it would kind of shake up the system. We hoped when it settled we would be a little better off. So we worked in creating a high school in the 18th Street area, and a clinic in the neighborhood. We consulted with people and activists from everywhere, including the Black Panthers, who were in Chicago setting up a community clinic. We learned from them how to run a clinic. They'd been very successful in doing that in other cities. Out of that then, in 1972, one of my colleagues in Chicago who was with CRS already asked me to help him. He had been doing some work in Lansing, Michigan on some issues and that's where my brother was living and attending Michigan State. My brother was stirring up a fight and my colleague went over there to help solve those issues. They told my brother they were looking for somebody who speaks Spanish, and he said, "Well, talk to my brother in Chicago." He did, but I was very reluctant. I had experienced life in Crystal City, Texas, where I was born, and the relations between the community and the Immigration and Naturalization Service - which was part of the Justice Department - and then other things that I heard, such as the F.B.I., infiltrating community organizations. So I was kind of reluctant to join the Justice Department. I didn't trust them.




Manuel Salinas


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

Question:
What did you do before joining CRS?

Answer:
I was with the war on poverty program a jobs program called SER. I was the state director for SER for the state of Colorado.

Question:
What is SER?

Answer:
Service, Employment and Rehabilitation. It was a manpower program under the war on poverty program. You trained people to prepare for jobs, we gave people typing skills and so on. And we got into all types of training for employment and helped people phase in from our program to employment. Then the employment agencies would call us and say, "Hey do you have anybody that might be ready for employment and has a work ethic already" that we've been working with? then we branched out into very skilled areas, not only typing, but maybe electronics, or something on that order that person would be semi-skilled before he goes to work for the employer. Ironically, the director of CRS for the Denver region came into the office one day, saying that his secretary was ill for a couple days, and that he needed something typed. So I said "sure, my secretary can do it." So she did the work and I started talking to him because we were long time friends and I asked him, "What's going on?" He said, "well I'm getting ready to open up an office in Dallas. And we're going to have Denver as a field office. And Dallas is going to be the regional office, so that's great. "So are you recruiting here," I asked? I just happened to mention it and he said "yes." I saw an opening, because I'd already been in civil service before, so I thought "well from here I can go back in and then build my civil service retirement on that." Not thinking of retirement really, I was too young then, but just building. Sure enough, I was selected out of a group of five people. So that's how I got into CRS.

Question:
When you were at SER did you do any kind of conflict work, conflict management, or conflict resolution?

Answer:
No, not really, it was more just management and budgeting, time keeping, working with private industry for employment opportunities for the people that we were preparing, and working with the community groups in and around Denver in the area of employment. So you had to keep in touch with the community groups pretty much.

Question:
So you had a feel for community organizing and working with people?

Answer:
Well, I had been with the GI Forum for a long time and we always got into a lot of things, employment, housing, and education issues. A lot of them were police issues, so I had a kind of a feel for that sort of thing. So what I did in CRS was what I was doing for the GI Forum, only with CRS, I was getting paid We basically had the same issues coming up in the organization.




Manuel Salinas


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

Question:
What is the GI Forum?

Answer:
The GI Forum is primarily a veterans service organization, veterans rights and so on. It also expanded into education, employment, and civil rights. They established SER, the Service Employment, and Redevelopment program. In some cities SER is still going on through the department of labor.




Ozell Sutton


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

Would you say a little bit about how you got involved with CRS?

Answer:
I was a part of the group that conceptualized CRS before the Civil Rights Act of 1964. I was director of the Arkansas Council on Human Relations and we were trying to get the Civil Rights Act structured and passed going all the way back to 1962. A group was meeting in Washington to conceptualize how we could get an act passed, given what it contained. I was assigned to two workshop groups. One was the Community Relations Service, although we didn't call it that at the time. We simply called it Civil Rights, or we would call it the Human Relations Groups, or that kind of thing. I was also assigned to the EO [Equal Opportunity] workshop group that finally came forth with EEOC, which is Title VII. So we picked our brains for two days, deciding if we could get that passed. And then, the March on Washington forced Congress to enact the Civil Rights Act of 1964. (As you remember, the March on Washington was in 1963, and it forced Congress to pass the act.) Before then, various bills had been presented and there were various notions on what the act ought to look like. Lyndon Johnson had an idea of something like the Community Relations Service long before he was President. And now, he was President and he was pushing for it to happen. When it was finally passed, that's Title X of the Civil Rights Act, it didn't quite look like what we had envisioned. We had envisioned it having subpoena power, cease and desist power, and mediation and conciliation, but it didn't pass Congress that way. Now, about how I got involved in the profession and all that. After the Civil Rights Act was passed, they used the Commission on Civil Rights to present a series of hearings on the Civil Rights Act to make officials aware of what was contained in the Civil Rights Act. Civil rights activists, school board members, and members of city councils in Arkansas, mayors, and these kind of people were invited to come hear what the act meant. For the opening session, they found out at the last minute, though I knew all the time, there was not a single black on the program. The guy who used to be with the Civil Rights Commission, who later went to HUD, by the name of Sam Simmons called me and said, "Ozell?" I said, "Yes?" He said, "You know that we're opening this big conference in Little Rock tomorrow?" I said, "Yes, I know." And he said, "There's not a single black in the opening session." I said, "I know that, too. I don't know what you all were thinking, but there's not a single black on the program." He said, "You've got to speak." I said, "I've got to speak? About what?" And Sam said, "I really don't give a damn. Just speak." I said, "Sam, it's unfair that you've been planning this for six weeks and you've got all of the speakers. The governors' going to be there, and he's going to speak, and the congressman's going to speak and one of the senators is speaking. Now, you call me at the last minute and tell me that I must join in, now that's not equal opportunity." He said, "Oh hell, Ozell. Number one, you know you can do it, and I know you can do it. And number two, you know if I'd have told you six weeks ago that you still would have spoken extemporaneously. Now don't tell me that, I know you can, and I want you to speak." I said, "Okay." He said, "Fifteen minutes." So I spoke. There was a guy there from CRS, it was just getting started and after I had spoken, they invited me to join the staff of CRS.

Question:
Was this Ben Holman?

Answer:
No, Ben Holman was not director at the time. See, when Ben Holman came, he came as head of media for CRS, and not director of the agency. The director of the agency, I've forgotten his name now, but I came in under Roger Wilkins. But it was not even Roger then, Roger was with the agency, but he was not director. When I was asked to join I said, "Alright, I'll take a look." And I told them that I needed a fourteen to come aboard. They didn't have a fourteen to give me, so I didn't come. Just that simple. A year later, I was called by a guy named George Cobos. George was deputy director then and in charge of the field staff, and he was in charge of recruiting and staffing up. He called and he said, "Ozell, you don't know me, I don't know you, I only know who you are, but we're trying to staff CRS and I see that you don't have an application in here, but I see where they talked with you last year about coming aboard, so I'm checking. We need people to come aboard who are already seasoned and experienced. You headed our council on Human Relations and you're just the kind of person we need to come aboard. So, how about it?" I said, "Can you give me a fourteen?" He said, "No, I can't give you a fourteen. We don't have a fourteen." I said, "Well, that is my condition." And we talked for awhile and he said, "Are you coming up to the white House conference on Civil Rights?" I said, "Yes, I'm coming up. Now I don't work for one of these agencies that's going to pay my way," I said. That's the way we were in those days, we had to pay our own way, but I did that. "I might be having donuts and coffee for breakfast, and stew for dinner, but I'll be there." He said, "Well, let's get together." He described himself to me so I would know him and I described myself to him. Sure enough, we got together and he offered the job again and I said, "You got a fourteen?" He said, "No, but I have another proposition I'd like to offer you. Would you come for a thirteen if I open you an office there in Little Rock?" I said, "Well, if I don't have to move, I'll come for a thirteen." He said, "Now you're going to travel like hell. You're not going to be working in Little Rock, but home will still be in Little Rock." And my wife's a teacher there, so she could keep on teaching. He said, "But you will leave home on Mondays and come back on Thursdays. Now can you handle that?" I said, "As long as I don't have to move, I'll come for a thirteen." So they opened an office in the area and I got the thirteen, and that's how I came to CRS. But I was assigned in New Orleans. And I was in New Orleans every Monday morning.




Will Reed


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

Answer:
Political Science education. We had people with all kinds of degrees -- Doctorates, Masters, and of course, regular BA's. Our strength lay in the experiences of the staff coming into the agency....ex-police chiefs and patrolmen for example. We needed people with police expertise, so we had a few cops who came into the agency who could give you an in-depth understanding of a patrolman's duty.




Will Reed


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

Question:
You said you were from a political science background. What were you doing prior to joining CRS?

Answer:
I did three things. I didn't have just one degree. I was in criminal justice: I was a probation officer, and a parole officer, a juvenile justice officer, a teacher in junior college as well as junior high school, and a juvenile court referee. I was also in the military.




Will Reed


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

I was a supervisor, I had 14 probation officers under me at the time.



Will Reed


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

You learn all of these dynamics because I came out of corrections and prisons and all of these places before I even came to CRS.



Wallace Warfield


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

Question:
What were you doing beforehand?

Answer:
Before that, I worked for an anti-poverty agency in New York, one of the first of the 26 "community corporations” as they were called, on the lower west side of New York. Before that, I worked with street gangs.

Question:
Tell me a little bit about your poverty work.

Answer:
Okay. I came in as the coordinator -- this is kind of a paraphrasing of the title, but I was the coordinator of a block working group. The anti-poverty agency actually was an umbrella agency that passed funds through to smaller neighborhood groups, but reserved a certain amount of program activity unto itself. One of those activities was training and working with block workers, who were people that were hired from the community to do various kinds of work, like welfare rights organizing, and a lot of the elementary and secondary school education. The program put people to work, bringing community people into the school system so that they could have their voices heard about elementary school policy. So a lot of it was advocacy work. And then I later became the deputy director of the community corporation.

Question:
That was a government agency?

Answer:
Well, like most community corporations, the funding was a combination of federal funding and city funding. Technically speaking, it was a city agency.

Question:
Tell me a little bit about the gang work.

Answer:
Ah, the gang work. That was my first work coming out of college, out of undergrad school. I actually worked for an organization called the New York City Youth Board, which was then the seminal agency in the world, as far as the work being done with street gangs. It was built on the old kind of case worker model, except that we were called street club workers. We didn’t like to consider ourselves case workers – that was kind of an anathema to us. I began by working with a gang on the upper west side of Manhattan, which is all a very chic area now, actually. What you did in those days, and the basis for the New York City Youth Board, was to prevent and mitigate gang fighting, because the gangs in those days were what were called fighting gangs. Fighting gangs fought over turf, as opposed to drug gangs or more entrepreneurial gangs. These were pretty much turf-oriented kinds of gangs. Most of the time was spent just sort of hanging out on the street corner with these kids, and trying to create these kinds of changes, individually or if you were lucky, with maybe four or five of them in your length of time there. So much of your time was spent working and counseling with these young people. Occasionally, you’d get yourself in the midst of a serious fight, but that didn’t happen too often. The whole idea was to sort of change anti-social behavior into something that was more socially acceptable.




Dick Salem


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

Question:
What were you doing before you came to CRS?

Answer:
Immediately before, I was regional director of the Washington D.C. office of the U. S. Small Business Administration.

Question:
What kind of work did that entail?

Answer:
I managed an office that provided financing and management assistance to small businesses in that region. I came to SBA a couple of years earlier from a career in journalism; I had been covering SBA for my own publication. At SBA I worked in what was called Lyndon Johnson’s Poverty Program. It was the economic opportunity loan program nicknamed the minority loan program to provide loans to businesses that weren’t owned by white males. That led me to the job of regional director of the local office in Washington DC.




Nancy Ferrell


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

For 5 years prior, I was a private consultant doing conflict management training in business. I had developed a "managing conflict in the work force" curriculum, and was using that and doing training as a training consultant.



Nancy Ferrell


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

Answer:
Before I was in consulting, I was in the ministry. I was a Baptist minister. I was doing student work and mission work. A lot of the people were from ministry-related backgrounds. So, it was interesting, the kinds of people who became a part of that.




Renaldo Rivera


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

Question:
How did you get into this field?

Answer:
I started in the 1960's coming directly out of the civil rights activity at the time in New York. I had a primary responsibility in the mid '60s in the creation of community corporations. Then I moved on to Neighborhood Youth Corps activity and then just setting up community corporations to deal with OEO (federal Office of Economic Opportunity) issues and the CAP (Community Action Program) agency. So I came out of that kind of background along with a civil rights organizing background in the South Bronx and East Harlem. Then I moved into city-wide responsibilities for pocket poverty areas in New York.

Question:
You were a federal employee?

Answer:
No, as a city employee. They were private non-profits, but they worked along with the city. Most of it was federal money passed through to the city. During that time the conflicts were arising between old kinds of leadership and new kinds of leadership in New York City. In that period I also spent some time in the (Mayor) Lindsay administration with the Model Cities program around the decentralization the city's public schools. During that era there were large numbers of conflicts between institutions and community groups looking for their share of political empowerment.

Question:
What were you doing specifically?

Answer:
There were two things. In the Model Cities program we were integrating college youth and interns into the process of doing community assessments. That included trash pickups, abandoned cars, drug hot spots, and then opportunities for economic development where the business community needed to be enhanced. That was primarily in East Harlem. The idea of utilizing neighborhood residents who were returning college students was pretty new. The whole notion of internships was brand new. Then, to utilize students of color in the northeast who were just entering college in larger numbers because of the changes in admissions policies.

Question:
Where are we at now on the calendar?

Answer:
1968 or 1969.

Question:
Were your jobs specifically administrative?

Answer:
Yes, each time.

Question:
So you were maybe functioning as a mediator informally, but that wasn't your job description.

Answer:
Right, but let me give you an example of how mediation was working. It was not formal mediation, but what was happening at that time was the evolution of conflict resolution work. That was part and parcel of what everyone got trained in. So whether I became an administrator early or not, you still had to participate and learn about conflict resolution work and techniques along with all the human relations training that was taking place at that time. Those two subsets of skills were always built into what we learned how to do and what we taught other how to do.

Question:
Teaching conflict resolution was relatively new in the late 60's.

Answer:
Absolutely. It was brand new. I was there right at the beginning.

Question:
Where were you trained?

Answer:
Partly at the Institute for Conflict Resolution in New York, at the American Arbitration Association, and another part came through Manny Diaz who ran a series of sessions for the Urban Coalition of New York which a few years later were picked up by the Urban Fellows Program at Yale University. Let me give you an example of what happened in New York if you had to use the conflict resolution work when I first worked for the city in 1970. The Community Council of Greater New York was a private non-profit that had Catholic Charities, United Jewish Appeal, and a wide range of actors participating in it. We had all the pocket poverty areas so everything that wasn't a community corporation was an area for our activity. Implicit in that work was to get youth services and programming and other forms of youth employment activities into each of the communities. In order to accomplish that we had to deal with conflict resolution and mediation activities with each of the community corporations adjacent and contiguous to these pocket poverty areas in New York, just to be able to do the outreach, to get the youth involved and to get the counselors on board. This is during the time of the war on poverty, so these activities were built in. The next level, and I'll just give you another example on civil rights, was that at that time New York City' did not include people who were disabled or wards of the city or state, in the city's youth employment activity or any of their youth programs. So we raised that issue, the legal question with the city Board of Estimate. I remember I probably didn't even know what I was asking. I knew what I was asking, but I didn't know the impact at that time. I asked them on what legal bases can these populations be excluded? Well that closed the meeting right away and within two weeks we were able to work with people at Welfare Island (now Roosevelt Island) with mental and physical disabilities and begin to include them in the mainstream. These included youths who were already abandoned in one form or another and then had a disability and were often times young people of color. This was a major breakthrough in terms of the kinds of work that was going on at that time. So in terms of conflict resolution work what it did was work with the system to understand what it is that it's doing in the posing of a question, the framing of a question, such that it might be exclusive of a population, or have a population in a power imbalance; the framing of an issue with institutions in such that it indicates that power imbalance, or a potential exclusion, was oftentimes enough to just open that system or that institution for greater inclusiveness.

Question:
So you were steeped in that systemic approach in this work?

Answer:
Right from the beginning. Then additional tutelage came from Whitney Young (former head of the Urban League). I was an early Whitney Young fellow with the Urban League, and that was very helpful. Robert Hill, who is now the president, was, in fact assigned as, what I didn't know, was a mentor at that time. I mean I had no way to know that. I just thought he was someone I was directed to work with on a regular basis. So I really had a lot of advantages that I didn't realize of at the time. Another important place on the conflict resolution training was Evaline Antonetti and the United Bronx Parents. They were critical in shaping the parental response of New York to parental inclusion and decision-making in New York City public schools and their decentralization. They had, in addition to their organizing approaches, conflict resolution training built in to deal with the development of the decentralization of the city schools. Then we built it into the youth enrichment programs and the educational enrichment -- it was called cultural enrichment and education. We built it into the training for Neighborhood Youth Corp people from the late '60's through the early '70's. We built in conflict resolution training as part of their exposure and then it was the first introduction of cultural enrichment, which is multi-cultural enrichment today into the New York City public schools, by training the teachers. The way this worked was that we were not only hitting people who were in school, but we were reaching kids who were at risk and already out of school. So these kinds of trainings and techniques were used with what are now call "gangs." They were the early youth gangs. So my primary focus of work from the late '60's to the early '70's was around the youth empowerment and in addition dealing with youth gang activity so they could have constructive outlets for the concerns they had because the nature of the issues raised by young people was very different then from what older people were seeing.

Question:
That's a rich background coming up to the CRS era.




Martin Walsh


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

I have my master's degree in sociology. I think also important are the experiences I had when I was in Miami, setting up systems, dealing with racial/ethnic problems and learning how to work effectively with various institutions. When I went down to Miami, I set up a human rights commission; I was in charge of developing the family counseling center; and I worked with the Office of Community Service there. I was heavily involved in a lot of the problem solving in the Miami area right from the beginning. I had the opportunity to develop new ideas at OEO (Office of Economic Opportunity).



Stephen Thom


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

I was in Washington, D.C. with the Department of Education; I had initially worked my way to Washington on a Department of Health, Education and Welfare Fellowship in 1975. That was the old cabinet department that existed before President Carter split education away from health and human services. I was teaching at Fresno State University from 1973-75. I ended up working in the Department of Education for about 13 years.

Question:
What were you teaching?

Answer:
At Fresno State, I was the director and coordinator of the Asian American studies program. So, when I got into the HEW Fellowship, I latched onto the Right-to-Read Program.






Martin Walsh


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

What were you doing before you joined CRS?

Answer:
The year before I was with the Neighborhood Centers Branch of the Office of Economic Opportunity, and was working there on a new mission for President Johnson on building community corporations. They singled out 14 cities across the country to show how they could better coordinate government programs. OEO was in the leadership and some of the cities there were going to be community corporations. This was a very interesting and excellent concept. Before that I was a priest in Miami, Florida. I did a lot of work there with Cuban refugees and organizing farm workers.






Angel Alderete


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

Question:
So your experience in corrections and law enforcement gave you a certain credibility?




Bob Hughes


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

What was it that attracted you to CRS?

Answer:
When I came back from overseas, the New Society had developed a whole range of civil rights agencies that I had never heard of. For me this was a matter of becoming acquainted with as many of these as possible in a short period of time. Ultimately, pursuing and focusing on HEW, office of civil rights for one. The Community Relations Service with the Justice Department attracted my attention, because I felt like there was a need to go beyond the legal measure that had evolved under law of civil rights legislation. To get implementation, it ultimately comes down to working issues out at the local, community level. That's a position that I held for many years. Regardless of what state and federal government did.

Question:
We want you to get a little bit more specific and tell us about a typical case that you were involved in while you were at CRS. We want you to walk us through the entire process; how it came to your attention, what you did, did you have a game plan, who did you talk to? Walk us through.

Answer:
Excuse me if I interrupt you, but I've been working in human rights since 1954, in Alabama initially, then 1961 in Southern Africa. That earlier experience was very informative for me. I just want to slide that in, it didn't start in 1967, or 1961 even.




Silke Hansen


 [Full Interview] [Topic Top]

What were you doing prior to joining CRS?

Answer:
Just prior to CRS I was a senior budget analyst for Model Cities in New York City. That was sort of an intern job. But prior to that, I was a deputy director of a community action agency in New York City and did organizing around community-based issues including education and economics. We had some neighborhood youth core programs. This was one of your standard CAP [Community Action Program] agencies back in the old days.







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