Additional Background Materials

Other information about CRS can be found in:


The CRS website at The CRS site has information about the agency, as well as quite a few full text fact sheets and other documents about CRS work and racial conflict resolution.

(Note: This project and this site (meaning the site you are visiting now) is completely independent of CRS or the Department of Justice. This project was carried out by Conflict Management Initiatives and the University of Colorado Conflict Research Consortium and was fully funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation.)

The CRS mandate from the 1964 Civil Rights Act can be found at: - The Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance

Background documents provided to this project by former CRS mediator Ed Howden include:

Notes on Mediation - Central concepts, usual ground rules, based on experience of the Western Regional Office, Community Relations Service, U.S. Department of Justice.)

A Note on the Differences between Interpersonal and Large Group Interventions - again, these are brief, but useful notes on the additional challenges posed by large, intergroup conflicts.

Notes regarding use of mediation teams - and comparing teams to individual mediation.



Levine, Bertram .Bridge over Troubled Waters: The Federal Government's Approach to Reducing Racial Conflict (1964-1989). Forthcoming, 2001.

Pompa, Gilbert G. "The Community Relations Service," in Dennis Sandole and Ingrid Sandole-Staroste, Conflict Management and Problem Solving: Interpersonal to International Applications, 1987. New York: New York University Press, pp. 130-142.



Greenberg, Barbara "Identifying and Resolving Conflict in Multicultural Settings" National Association of Secondary School Principals Bulletin. .January 1995.

Huie, Barbara, "Cross-Cultural Conflict on the Texas Gulf Coast" 1987. in Forum. Washington D.C.: National Institute of Dispute Resolution.

Klugman, Julian, "Negotiating Agreements and Resolving Disputes Across Cultures" 1992 Mediation Quarterly 9:2.

Klugman, Julian, and Barbara Greenberg "Program Helps Identify, Resolve Problems in Multicultural High Schools," The National Association of Secondary School Principals Bulletin, December 1991.

Klugman, Julian, Barbara Greenberg, and Stephen Thom "Resolving Conflict in Racially Diverse Schools", The Fourth R August/September 1992.

Klugman, Julian, Barbara Greenberg, Stephen Thom and Joseph Jones "Identifying and Resolving Conflicts in Multicultural Settings, The National Association of Secondary School principals Bulletin January 1995.

Klugman, Julian and Joseph Jones "Resolving Conflicts in Multicultural Settings," Thrust for Educational Leadership, May/June 1994.

Klugman, Julian, Stephen Thom and Larry Myers, "Mediation and Native American Repatriation of Human Remains," Mediation Quarterly, Summer 1993.

Salem, Richard A."Community Dispute Resolution Through Outside Intervention," in Peace and Change 8:3, Summer 1982. Republished by the Society of Professionals in Dispute Resolution, 1986.

Salem, Richard A. "Designing a Reformatory Conflict Management and Dispute Resolution System Through Mediation", The Practice of Restorative Justice, Galaway and Hudson, eds. 1996. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

Salem, Richard A. "Mediating Political and Social Conflicts: The Skokie-Nazi Dispute" in Mediation Quarterly 5:1, 1984. Also in Sociological Practice, Vol. 10, 1992.

Salem, Richard A. "Mediation as An Alternative to Civil Rights Litigation" in Discretion, Justice, and Democracy: A Public Policy Perspective, Carl F. Pinkele and William C. Louthan, eds, 1985, Ames: Iowa State University Press.

Copyright © 2000-2007
by Conflict Management Initiatives and the Conflict Information Consortium

This is a legacy site maintained for historical purposes as it was created in 2007.
We have no budget to update the site to current web standards.